Auteur Topic: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads  (gelezen 3217 keer)

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het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Gepost op: 04-11-2018 14:56 »
Beste mensen,

Ik zet dit topic in Controverse en verandering, hoewel de controverse en veranderingen al heel oud zijn. Ik ben onlangs begonnen in de vuistdikke pil van Peter Frankopan, getiteld The Silk Roads - A New History of the World. Het beschrijft (een stuk van) de wereldgeschiedenis met de focus nadrukkelijk op Azië. De auteur is Amerikaan en vermeldt tijdens zijn schooljeugd een aardig eenzijdig beeld van 'de' geschiedenis voorgeschoteld te hebben gekregen. Feitelijk was het allemaal een opmaat voor het glorieuze verschijnen van de VS, de apotheose van alle landen. (Ik chargeer slechts licht.)

Het boeddhisme komt in het begin direct aan bod. Ik plaats hieronder stukken tekst die ik heb overgetypt zonder commentaar. Ik bedoel niks te betogen maar vind het belangrijk dat dit gedeeld wordt. Het kan allicht ons begrip van het vroege boeddhisme verrijken.

Met warme groet,

Maarten


Citaat
p6

The decades that followed Alexander's death saw a gradual and unmistakable programme of Hellenisation, as ideas, themes and symbols from ancient Greece were introduced to the east. The descendants of his generals remembered their Greek roots and actively empasised them, for example on coinage struck in the mints of the major towns that were located in strategically important points along the trade routes or in agriculturally vibrant centres.
Citaat
p7

Indeed, the language penetrated deep into the Indian cubcontinent. Some of the edicts issued by Maurayan ruler Ashoka, the greatest of the early Indian rulers, were made with parallel Greek translations, evidently for the benefit of the local population. The vibrancy of the cultural exchange as Europe and Asia collided are astonishing. Statues of the Buddha started to appear only after the cult of Apollo became established in the Gundhara valley and western India. Buddhists felt threatened by the success of new religious practices and began to create their own visual images. Indeed, there is a correlation not only in the date of the earliest statues of the Buddha, but also in their appearance and design: it seems that was Apollo that provided the template, such was the impact of Greek influences. Hitherto, Buddhists had actively refrained from visual representations; competition now forced them to react, to borrow and to innovate. Stone altars adorned with Greek inscriptions the images of Apollo and exquisite minitature ivories depicting Alexander from what is now southern Tajikistan reveal just how far incluences from the west penetrated.

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #1 Gepost op: 10-11-2018 12:39 »
p27 e.v., the Road of Faiths
Citaat
It was not only goods that flowed along the arteries that linked the Pacific, Central Asia, India, the Persian Gult and the Mediterranean in antiquity; so did ideas. And among the most powerful ideas were those that concerned the divine. Intellectual and religious exchange had always been animated across this region; now it became more complex and more competitive. Local cults and belief systems came into contact with well-eastablished cosmologies. It made for a rich melting pot where ideas were borrowed, refined and repackaged.
After Alexander the Great's campagins had dragged Greek ideas east, it was not long before ideas flowed in the other direction. Buddhist concepts made rapid headway across Asia, especially after they had been championed by the Emperor Ashoka, who purportedly converted to Buddhism after reflecting on the horrrific cost of the military campaigns that had created a great empire in India in the third centry BC. Inscriptions from this time bear testimony to the many people now following Buddhist principles and practices as far away as Syria and perhaps beyond. The beliefs of a sect known as the Therapeutai that flourished in Alexandria in Egypt for centuries bear unmistakeable similarities to Buddhism, including the use of allegorical scriptures, the devotion to enlightenment through prayer and detachment from the sense of the self in order to find inner calm.
The ambiguities of the source material make it difficult to trace the spread of Buddhism with accuracy. Nevertheless, it is striking tha tthere is an extensive contemporary literature that describes how the religion was carried out of the Indian subcontinent and introduced to new regions. Local rulers had to decide whether to tolerate its appearance, to stmp it out or to adopt and support it. One who did yhe latter was Menander, a Bactrian king in the second century BC, and descendant of one of Alexander the Great's men. According to a text known as the Milind apañhā, the ruler was persuaded to follow a new spiritual path thanks to the intercession of an inspirational monk whose intelligence, compassion and humility stood in contrast to the superficiality of the contemporary world. It was enough, apparently, to convince the ruler to seek enlightenment through Buddhist teachings.
The inellectual and theological spaces of the Silk Roads were crowded, as deities and cults, priests and local rulers jostled with each other. The stakes were high. This was a time when societies were highly receptive to explanaations for everything from the mundane to the supernatural, and when faith offered solutions to a multitude of problems. The struggles between different faiths were highly political. In all these religions - whether they were Indic in origin like Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism, or those with roots in Persia such as Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism, or those from further west such as Judaism and Christianity, and, in due course, Islam - triumph on the battlefield or at the negotiating table went hand in hand with demonstrating cultural supremacy and divine benediction. The equation was as simple as it was powerful: a society protected and favoured by the right god, or gods, thrived; those promising false iidols and empty promises suffered.
There were strong incentives therefore, for rulers to invest in the right spiritual infrastructure, such as the building of lavish places of worship. This offered a lever over internal control, allowing leaders to form a mutually strengthening relationship with the priesthood who, across all the principal religions, wielded substantial moral authority and political power. This did not mean that rulers were passive, responding to doctrines laid out by an independent class (or in some cases caste). On the contrary, determined rulers could reinforce their authority and dominance by introducting new religious practices.
The Kushan Empire, which stretched from northern India to embrace most of Central Asia in the first centuries AD, offers a case in point. There, the kings patronised Buddhism, but they also forced its evolution. It was important for a ruling dynasy that was not native to the region to created a justification for their pre-eminence. To do so, ideas were blended together from a range of sources to form a lowest common denominator that would appeal to as many as possible. As a result, the Kudhans sponsored the building of temples - devakula, or 'themples of the divine family' - which developed the concept that had already become establish in this region, that rulers linked heaven and earth.
Meander had earlier announced on his coinage that he was not only a temporal ruler but also a saviour - something so significant that it was noted in both Greek (soteros) and Indic script (tratasa) in bilingual legends on his coins. The Kushans went further, establishing a leadership cult that claimed direct relation to the divine, and created distance between ruler and subject. An inscription found at Taxila in the Punjab records this perfectly. This ruler, it states boldly, was 'Great king, king of kings and Son of God'. It was a phrase that has obvious echoes with the Old and the New Testaments - as does the concept of the ruler being a saviour and a gateway into the next life.

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #2 Gepost op: 10-11-2018 12:54 »
Maarten,

Kun je zaken die je leest niet wat in je eigen woorden samenvatten of schrijven over wat je opvallend vindt?

Siebe

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #3 Gepost op: 10-11-2018 19:09 »
Siebe,

Natuurlijk kan ik dat. Ik vind de geschreven tekst echter waardevol op zichzelf. Als ik er vervolgens conclusies uit afleid dan kun je er vergif op innemen dat een ander het daar niet me eens is. Die discussie zoek ik niet. Veeleer zou ik het geheel open willen stellen. Wat haalt men hier uit?

Met warme groet,

Maarten
« Laatst bewerkt op: 12-11-2018 07:56 door MaartenD »

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #4 Gepost op: 10-11-2018 19:30 »
.... dan kun je er vergif op innemen dat een ander het daar niet me eens is.

Lol.
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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #5 Gepost op: 11-11-2018 19:13 »
Hoi,

Volgens mij moet ik dan mijn Engels even opvijzelen, maar sorry daar ligt op het moment mijn interesse niet. Even voor de rust: mijn Engels is altijd heel goed geweest. Laten we hier duidelijk in zijn. Hoeven we die discussie niet aan te gaan
 
Groet Moesa

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #6 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 07:57 »
Welkom terug, moesa. Ik zal niet aan je Engels twijfelen. :)

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #7 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 07:57 »
In what was tantamount to a revolution in Buddhism around the first century AD, a transformation took place in the way that that faith shaped the daily life of its adherents. In their most basic, traditional form, the teachings of the Buddha were straightforward, advocating finding a path from suffering (Sanskrit: duḥkha) that led to a state of peace (nirvāṇa), by means of folllowing eight 'noble paths'. The route to enlightenment did not involve third parties, nor did it involve the material or physical world in any meaningful way. The journey was one that was spiritual, metaphysical and individual.
This was to change dramatically as new ways of reaching a higher state of consciousness emerged. What had been an intense internal journey, devoid of outside trappings and influences, was now supplement by advice, help and locations designed to make the path to enlightenment and Buddhism itself more compelling. Stupas or shrines ostensibly linked to the Buddha were built, becoming points of pilgrimage, while texts setting out how to behave at such sites made the ideals behind Buddhism more real and more tangible. Bringing flowers or perfume as an offering to a shrine would help achieve salvation, advised the Saddharmapundarike, often known as the Lotus Sutra, that dates to this period. So too would hiring musicians to 'beat drums, blow horns and conches, pan-pies and flutes, play lutes and haprs, gongs, guitars and cymbals': this would enable the devotee to attain 'buddhahood'. These were deliberate efforts to make Buddhism more visible - and audible - and to enable it to compete better in an increasingly noisy religious envirronment.
Another new ideas was that of endowment - specifically endowments granted to new monasteries springing up across the routes fanning out from India into Central Asia. Donating money, jewels and other gifts became common practice, and with it the concept that donors would be 'carried over the oceans of sufferings', as a reward for their generosity. Indeed, the Lotus Sutra and other texts of this period went so far as to list which precious objects were most suitable as gits; pearls, crystal, gold, silver, lapis lazuli, coral, diamonds and emeralds were all considered highly acceptable.
Large-scale irrigation projects in the valleys of what are now Tajikistan and southern Uzbekistan built around the turn of the eras show that this period saw rising affluence and prosperity as well as increasingly vibrant cultural and commercial exchange. With wealthy local elites to turn to, it was not long before monastic centres became hives of activity and home to scholars who busied themselves compiling Buddist texts, copying them and translating them into local languages, thereby making them available for wider and larger audiences. This too was part of the programme to spread the religion by making it more accessible. commerce opened the door for faith to flow through.
« Laatst bewerkt op: 12-11-2018 07:59 door MaartenD »

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #8 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 09:57 »
ja, joh Maarten. Ik lees veel Engelse artikelen, dat kan niet anders als je "de wereld rondgaat". Ik kreeg meteen een gevoel van: ik denk dat ik mijn master Engels op moet gaan halen. Zo ken ik meerdere talen, dat weet je toch?  Ik ben het allemaal aan het uitpluizen hoe het verleden van de wereld nu naar ons toe aan het komen is.

we weten toch allemaal hoe de 1e wwo is begonnen?

Ik kom dat denk ik niet zomaar te weten.

Alles wat we hier zien, is een vorm van een verleden

Oeps Moesa

Warme groet en ik zal er mijn uiterste best aan doen, om totaal vrede te zoeken met als die mensen

Moesa


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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #9 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 10:28 »
Hoi Maarten,

oeps. Jij laat mij ineens weer zien; moet ik niet iets aan mijn Engels gaan doen. Je kan deze gewoon in google vertaler gooien, dat is best een goede oplossing, denk ik zo

Thank you voor de spiegel

Moesa

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #10 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 10:32 »
Hoe doe je dat?
met een been in het graf,
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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #11 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 10:38 »
oh al gevonden.

goeie tip!

https://translate.google.com/?hl=nl
« Laatst bewerkt op: 12-11-2018 10:55 door ekayano maggo »
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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #12 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 11:29 »
Hoi Ekayano,

Goede tip. Dat doet Maarten ons dan even sturen. Deuh en nu kunnen we het begrijpen. Heerlijk

Warme groet,

Moesa

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #13 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 11:42 »
Another new ideas was that of endowment - specifically endowments granted to new monasteries springing up across the routes fanning out from India into Central Asia. Donating money, jewels and other gifts became common practice, and with it the concept that donors would be 'carried over the oceans of sufferings', as a reward for their generosity.

Hoi Maarten,

Waar is dit idee te vinden dat je door vrijgevigheid bevrijd kan worden van samsara? Is dat ergens in een Pali sutta te vinden of in een mahayana tekst?


Siebe

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #14 Gepost op: 12-11-2018 12:01 »
Hoi Maarten,

Mooie tekst en duidelijk te begrijpen, met dank aan: Google

Warme groet,

Moesa

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #15 Gepost op: 15-11-2018 13:56 »
Het laatste citaat:
Around the first century AD, the spread of Buddhism from northern India along the trade routes taken by merchants, monks and travellers accelerated rapidly. To the south, in the Deccan plateau, scores of cave temples were built, with stupas dotting the landscape deep into the Indian subcontinent. To the north and east, Buddhism was transmitted with growing energy by the Sogdian merchants who played a vital role in linking China with the Indus valley. These were men whose own close-knit networks and efficient use of credit left them ideally positioned to dominate long-distance trade.
The key to their commercial success was a dependable chain of stopping points. As more Sogdians became Buddhist, stupas were built alongside their principal routes, as can be seen in the Hunza valley of northern Pakistan: scores of passing Sogdians carved their names into rocks alongside images of the Buddha in hope that their long journeys would be fruitful and safe - poignant reminders of the traveller's need for spiritual comfort when far from home.
It was not just small-scale scratchings tha ttestify to the energetic spread of Buddhism in this period. Kabul was ringed with forty monasteries, including one that a later visitor described with awe. Its beauty was comparable to that of springtime, he wrote. 'The pavement was make of onyx, the walls of pure marble; the door was made from moulded gold, while the floor was solid sliver; stars were prepresented everywhere one looked... in the hallway, there was a golden idol as beautiful as the moon, seated on a magnificent bejewelled throne.'
Soon Buddhist ideas an practices were spreading east through the Pamir mountains and into China. By the start of the fourth century AD, there were sacred Buddhist sites all over Xinjiang province in north-western China - such as the spectacular complex of caves at Qyzyl in the Tarm basin that included halls for worship, places dedicated to meditation and extensive living quarters. Before long, western China was studded with places that were transformed into sacred spaces, at Kashgar, Kucha and Turfan for example. By part of the mainstream in China, robustly competing with traditiona Confucianism, a broad cosmology that was as much about personal ethics as about spiritual beliefs, but which had deep roots going back a millenium. This was helped by aggressive promotion from a new ruling dynasty who, as conquerors originally from the steppes, were outsiders. As with the Kushan before them, the Northern Wei had much to gain by promoting the new at the expese of the old, and championing concepts that underlined their legitimacy. Huge statues of the Buddha were erected at Pincheng and Luoyang, far into the east of the country, together with lavishly endowed monasteries and shrines. There was no mistaking the message: the Northern Wei had triumphed and they had done so because they were part of a divine cycle, not merely brute victors on the battlefield.
Buddhism made sizeable inroads along the principal trading arteries to the west too. Clusters of caves dotted around the Persian Gulf, as well as large numbers of finds around Merv in modoern Turkmenistan, and series of inscriptions deep inside Persia, attest to Buddhism's ability to start competing with local beliefs. The rash of Buddhist loand-words into Parthian also bears witness to the intensification of the exchange of ideas in this period.
The difference, however, was that the deepening of commercial exchange galvanised Persia in another direction as it experienced a renaissance that swept through the economy, politics and culture. As a distinctively Persian identity reasserted itself, Buddhists found themselves being persecuted rather than emulated. The ferocity of the attacks led to the shrines in the Gulf being abandoned, and the stupas that had presumably been set up along the land routes within Persian territory being destroyed.
Religions rose and fell as they spread across Eurasia, fighting eachother for audiences, loyalty and moral authority.

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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #16 Gepost op: 04-07-2019 13:11 »
Another new ideas was that of endowment - specifically endowments granted to new monasteries springing up across the routes fanning out from India into Central Asia. Donating money, jewels and other gifts became common practice, and with it the concept that donors would be 'carried over the oceans of sufferings', as a reward for their generosity.

Hoi Maarten,

Waar is dit idee te vinden dat je door vrijgevigheid bevrijd kan worden van samsara? Is dat ergens in een Pali sutta te vinden of in een mahayana tekst?

Het doet mij denken aan de aflaten praktijk van de kerk,
waartegen maarten luther protesteerde.
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Re: het vroege boeddhisme volgens The Silk Roads
« Reactie #17 Gepost op: 04-07-2019 14:29 »
Ik vind dit ook interessante stukken tekst, die wel op zich staan. Het laat je wel zien dat het vroege boeddhisme onder druk stond vanuit de heersers om een instrument te worden bij het besturen van het volk. Sommige dingen zoals die koning die zegt dat hij “koning der koningen en Zoon van God” is laat wel duidelijk zien dat die heersers een heel praktische insteek hadden van waar men baat bij had, en niet voor een drastische leugen terugschrokken.